NOTE: This article was originally published in March 2012. In May 2014, Windows Mobile devices stopped syncing to a Windows Live (Outlook.com) account. It appears that Microsoft disabled this ability on their end and does not intend to enable this ability again. The steps that are outlined in this article no longer work.
I decided to leave this blog article active on my blog more for historical reasons since it is linked to some of my forum posts in the Microsoft’s Community forums.